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An aside is a dramatic device in which a character speaks to the audience. By convention, the audience is to realize that the character's speech is unheard by the other characters on stage. It may be addressed to the audience expressly (in character or out) or represent an unspoken thought. An aside is usually a brief comment, rather than a speech, such as a monologue or soliloquy. Unlike a public announcement, it occurs within the context of the play. An aside is, by convention, a true statement of a character's thought; a character may be mistaken in an aside, but may not be dishonest.


This technique is used by many playwrights, including William Shakespeare. For instance, in the play Macbeth, Macbeth has the following aside:

Time, thou anticipatest my dread exploits.

Another example is found in Hamlet:

A little more than kin, and less than kind.

This technique has frequently been used in film comedy, for example in the Bob Hope "Road" comedies, Woody Allen comedies and in Ferris Bueller's Day Off. The Jean-Luc Godard film Breathless contains an early use of character aside.

More recently, it was used by Ian Richardson's character Francis Urquhart in the 1990 BBC mini-series House of Cards, as well as by Kevin Spacey's character Frank Underwood in the 2013 Netflix original series of the same name.[1] It can be used to explain the often complex politics on the show, describe what the character's plans/emotions are or simply for humorous effect.

It was also used by Michaela Coel’s character Tracey in the Channel 4 comedy series Chewing Gum; and by the titular character in Fleabag, written and played by Phoebe Waller-Bridge.[2]


Aside is used to gossip about other characters without their awareness, give audiences better understanding of matters, as well as make audiences laugh; this humor that may be generated is because the character or characters being talked about is or are not conscious of the fact that they are being spoken of.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Zach Seward (May 10, 2013). "House of Cards' fourth wall".
  2. ^ Hunt, El (2019-03-29). "'Fleabag' proves that Phoebe Waller-Bridge is the master of the monologue". NME.


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